Ozone Layer in Simple Terms

Ozone Layer in Simple Terms


Ozone or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula O3. It is a pale blue gas with a distinctively pungent smell. It is an allotrope of oxygen that is much less stable than the diatomic allotrope O2, breaking down in the lower atmosphere to O2 (dioxygen). Ozone is formed from dioxygen by the action of ultraviolet (UV) light and electrical discharges within the Earth’s atmosphere.

Ozone Layer-

The ozone layer is the common term for the high concentration of ozone that is found in the stratosphere around 15–30km above the earth’s surface. It covers the entire planet and protects life on earth by absorbing harmful ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation from the sun. The sun emits three different types of UV radiation: UVA, UVB, and UVC. … UVA rays, which account for 95 percent of radiation that reaches the earth’s surface, cause wrinkles, “sun spots,” and other types of premature aging. The stratospheric ozone layer is Earth’s “sunscreen” – protecting living things from too much ultraviolet radiation from the sun. The emission of ozone depleting substances has been damaging the ozone layer.

Ozone Layer Depletion –

Ozone layer depletion is the thinning of the ozone layer present in the upper atmosphere. This happens when the chlorine and bromine atoms in the atmosphere come in contact with ozone and destroy the ozone molecules. One chlorine can destroy 100,000 molecules of ozone. It is destroyed more quickly than it is created. Ozone depletion consists of two related events observed since the late 1970s: a steady lowering of about four percent in the total amount of ozone in Earth’s atmosphere, and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone around Earth’s polar regions. The latter phenomenon is referred to as the ozone hole.

International Ozone Day –

In 1994, the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed 16 September the International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer, commemorating the date of the signing, in 1987, of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.

The theme for the celebration of 2020 World Ozone Day to be marked on 16th September is “Montreal Protocol – Keeping us, our food and vaccines cool“. This year’s World Ozone Day seeks to highlight, the Montreal Protocol does so much – such as slowing climate change and helping to boost energy efficiency in the cooling sector, which contributes to food security. The Protocol has been universally ratified by all 197 member countries of United Nations.

The Dobson Unit

The Dobson Unit (DU) is the unit of measure for total ozone. If you were to take all the ozone in a column of air stretching from the surface of the earth to space, and bring all that ozone to standard temperature (0 °Celsius) and pressure (1013.25 millibars, or one atmosphere, or “atm”), the column would be about 0.3 centimeters thick. Thus, the total ozone would be 0.3 atm-cm. To make the units easier to work with, the “Dobson Unit” is defined to be 0.001 atm-cm. Our 0.3 atm-cm would be 300 DU.

Effects Of Ozone Layer Depletion-

View of planet earth burning in space

The depletion of the ozone layer has harmful effects on the environment. Let us see the major effects of ozone layer depletion on man and environment.

On Human Health-The humans will be directly exposed to the harmful ultraviolet radiations of the sun due to the depletion of the ozone layer. This might result in serious health issues among humans, such as skin diseases, cancer, sunburns, cataract, quick ageing and weak immune system.

On Animals-Direct exposure to ultraviolet radiations leads to skin and eye cancer in animals.

On Environment-Strong ultraviolet rays may lead to minimal growth, flowering and photosynthesis in plants. The forests also have to bear the harmful effects of the ultraviolet rays.

On Marine Life-Planktons are greatly affected by the exposure to harmful ultraviolet rays. These are higher in the aquatic food chain. If the planktons are destroyed, the organisms present in the food chain are also affected.

Good News-

The Antarctic ozone hole — one of the deepest, largest gap in the ozone layer in the last 40 years — has closed, according to World Meteorological Organization (WMO) January 6, 2021.

Still we have to work for Ozone Layer –

The depletion of the ozone layer is a serious issue and various programmes have been launched by the government of various countries to prevent it. However, steps should be taken at the individual level as well to prevent the depletion of the ozone layer.

Following are some points that would help in preventing this problem at a global level:

Avoid the consumption of gases dangerous to the ozone layer-Due to their content or manufacturing process. Some of the most dangerous gases are CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons), halogenated hydrocarbon, methyl bromide and nitrous oxide.

Minimize the use of cars- The best transport option is urban, bicycle, or walking. If you use a car to a destination, try to carpool with others to decrease the use of cars in order to pollute less and save.

Do not use cleaning products that are harmful to the environment and to us-Many cleaning products contain solvents and substances corrosive, but you can replace these dangerous substances with non-toxic products such as vinegar or bicarbonate.

Buy local products- In this way, you not only get fresh products but you avoid consuming food that has travelled long distances. As the more distance travelled, the more nitrous oxide is produced due to the medium used to transport that product.

Maintain air conditioners- As their malfunctions cause CFC to escape into the atmosphere.

We have only One Home : The earth- SAVE IT

Dr. Neeraj SaxenaDirector

Rakshpal Bahadur Management Institute, Bareilly

Handling the Challenges of Organizational Development

Handling the Challenges of Organizational Development

“With Organizational Development comes Challenges” or it will not be wrong to say “With changes comes Challenges.” Organizational Development is something that is essential to ensure the effective growth and longevity of the company. Organizational Development in some cases becomes essential for the organization to  stay in the competition.

The crucial role in Organizational Development activities are played by the management and the employees of the organisation.   There must be a good understanding and coordination between the management and the employees for the success of any OD process. The various stages of OD process and its accomplishment must be transparent in the mindset of both.

Employees are the assets for their organization. Employees who stayed in the organization for longer duration often –

  • Become more confident and less stressed.
  • Helps in developing healthy working environment.
  • Works as a dedicated company experts.
  • Contribute more to the company business and culture.

Challenge # 1 – Employee Retention

In order to achieve gain from above benefits, a company needs to retain these employees in a satisfying manner. As an HR Manager, one should focus on retaining these valuable resources. Employee retention is one of the major functions of HR

Graph says, while hiring, the organization is in “Investment Zone”, which means that when a fresh talent enters the organization, the organization needs to first invest in him from hiring to on boarding to training and development.

Challenge # 2 Employee Resistances

It has been observed that employees generally oppose any Organizational Development activity with a view to avoid any change in the existing practices. It is a natural human tendency to resist change.

Other Challenges

Besides this, there are several other challenges faced by the organization; some of    which are –

  • Equipping with the modern technology.
  • Conflicts between management and employees.
  • Strategically communicating organizational priorities.
  • Meeting the level and standards of productivity.
  • Financial Management.

Now the Biggest Question here arises

How to overcome these OD challenges?

Here are some Tips to overcome OD Challenges-

  • Counseling: Counseling sessions can be conducted for employees for briefing up of needs of OD, which can make them realize the realistic situation of the organization in the present environment.
  • Role Change: We can consider some of them for role change as supervisors or other. Up to 20% of the employees can be considered as supervisors (Example- Quality checks etc.) as per the concept defined in Scientific Management by F W Taylor. Since they are the traditional winners of the organization, they best know about the quality of the product they are  producing.
  • Monetary Benefits : We can introduce bonus or incentives scheme for them which will motivate to work dedicatedly and stay longer with the business.

      Some more Behavioural aspects to consider

  • Leadership – Changes in the Leadership styles in order to bring more autonomy.
  • Communication – Maintain a good and healthy level of communication with the employees. Discuss the problems and solution with the employees. Know their perspective to the situation.
  • Focus – It is important to identify the problem, create a plan to accomplish it , implement the plan, and remain focused.
  • Participative Management – Be open to the solutions, different approaches and the new perspective, which the employees may have. Listen to them carefully and take a sensitive look over them.

Conceptual Framework for Handling OD Challenges

The image above shows the steps to lead to handle Organizational Development challenge. It starts with Problem Identification to Situational assessment, Planning, Implementation to get Feedback, if the results do  not meet the set standards or expected performance only then the process  need to be repeated.

Riya Tomar-Alumnus MBA 2019-21

RBMI, Bareilly

Wearable Nano biosensors for Covid-19 Detection

Wearable Nano biosensors for Covid-19 Detection

What it is ?

Wearable Nano biosensors are the devices that can be worn on the human body such as smart shirts, smart watches, smart rings, tattoos, smart gloves smart shoes, smart lenses, face masks etc. Presently, the design and development of wearable nano biosensors with their prospective in human health monitoring and medication have received a lot of attention due to further spread growing population, aging and chronic diseases steadily increasing medical treatment costs. The present healthcare system is passing through crucial transformation from the conventional hospital-centred system to an individual hospital-centred system.

Wearable Nano Biosensors for Covid-19 Detection

Wearable Nano Biosensors for Covid-19 Detection

The eruption of novel coronavirus disease (Covid-19) has become a worldwide pandemic. The harmful effects of novel coronavirus have encourage the development of diagnostic methods to handle the spread of disease. Currently, the conventional techniques such as real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test have been widely used for covid-19 detection, but it is a time consuming, labor-intensive, and may not be instantly used in remote or resource deficiency settings. Accordingly, wearable nano biosensors should offers continuous access to real-time physiological information, easy to use and low cost. And during the covid-19 pandemic, the ability of wearable nano biosensors has become increasingly clear.

Cytokine levels for the detection of coronavirus disease (covid-19)

The detection of cytokine levels in the human biofluids plays a vital role for the detection of coronavirus disease (covid-19) evolution and severity stages. The certain amount of cytokines presents in the human blood and very effective for the immune system of our body if their concentration in the blood is exceeds the normal range then it is harmful for us due to which the human can get corona positive so it is important to detect. A wearable graphene-based FET nano biosensor was developed for continuous, time consuming, sensitive and selective detection of cytokines in the biofluids. This type of wearable sensors could play a vital role in fighting the next pandemic.

SALIM HUSSAINAssistant Professor

Department:- Department of Electrical Engineering

RBCET, Bareilly

6G (Sixth Generation): Next generation of wireless communication systems

6G (Sixth Generation): Next generation of wireless communication systems

6G (Sixth Generation) wireless network is the successor to 5G wireless networks.  6G wireless networks are projected to be deployed in 2030.

The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) predicted that the by 2030 the overall mobile data traffic will reach surprisingly 5 zettabytes (ZB) per month i.e. increase at annual rate of approx 55% in 2020–2030.

Mobile data traffic in 2020-2030 forecasted by ITU

The Fifth generation (5G)

The Fifth generation (5G) is the most up-to-date effort that brings mobile communications technology in control. The standardization of 5G communications has been completed, and the system is being deployed worldwide. 5G communication was predicted not only a faster 4G, but also useful for numerous other applications, such as the Internet of Everything (IoE), Industry automation, online-gaming, high-definition video streaming,  remote healthcare etc by providing heterogeneous networks for device-to-device (D2D) communications, millimeter-wave (mm-wave) communication, massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) links, enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB) services, ultra-reliable and low-latency communications (uRLLC), Low latency, increased network capacity and data rates.

Projection for 2030

It is projected that by 2030 our culture will move towards a more digitized, data driven and AI inspired culture, which needs instant and ubiquitous wireless connectivity. Some key applications that are forecasted to come out in the near future are VR/AR (virtual and augmented reality), autonomous driving, 8K video streaming, holograms, remote surgery, Industry 4.0, IoT, Smart homes, Fog/Edge computing, AI-integrated services, unmanned aerial vehicles, and newer applications that have not been imagined yet, will need even greater data rates and less latency than what 5G networks will offer. These challenges have motivated industry and academia to start in the direction of next generation of wireless communication systems (6G) aimed at providing communication services for the future demands by providing ultrahigh bit rates such as 100 or even 1,000 Gb/s, offering services with long range, low bit rate, ultra-low power, and long latency (up to 1 s).

5G system focuses on eMBB (enhanced Mobile Broadband), which provides greater data-bandwidth complemented by moderate latency improvements on both 5G NR and 4G LTE. This will help to develop mobile broadband use cases such as emerging AR/VR media and applications, UltraHD or 360-degree streaming video and many more.  

What you will get in 6G

  • eMBB-Plus in 6G will change eMBB of 5G and provide a high-quality experience (QoE) in data utilization and standards.
  • Vehicular communications in 6G is based on secure ultra-reliable low-latency communications (SURLLC), which is an advancement of the URLLC and the mMTC in 5G networks.
  • With 6G technology, humans are likely to access and/or share physical features or express physical phenomenon as it is i.e. human-bond or centric communications will be possible.
  • Holographic communications are also possible in 6G i.e. we can interact with the received holographic data and alter the received video as needed.
  • Big Communications (BigCom) in 6G provide equally good services in both dense and remote areas.
  • To reach the goal of whole world connectivity, three-dimensional integrated networking would be used in 6G by 3D-InteCom, where the heights of communications nodes must be taken into consideration.
  • PHY security technologies and quantum key distribution via visible-light communications (VLC) would be used in 6G to provide high security, secrecy and privacy of data.
  • More advanced quantum computing and quantum communication technologies may be used to provide protection against various dangerous cyber-attacks.
  • To achieve a low energy consumption and long battery life, various energy harvesting methodologies would be used in 6G, which harvest energy from ambient radio-frequency signals, micro-vibrations and sunlight.
  • 6G services can use distributed ledger technologies such as Blockchain for reduce cost, decentralized trust, transparency and security.

6G communications are likely to provide enhanced services in terms of data rate, coverage area and allow users to connect to each other everywhere and every time. 6G systems redesign the wireless communications technology progress from “connected things” to “connected intelligence.” i.e.  6G networks will be essential to support ubiquitous AI- based services from the center to the end devices of the network.

UDIT AGARWAL-Asst. Professor,

Deptt. of Computer Applications -RBMI Bareilly

Nourish Your Body for Better Hair Health

Nourish Your Body for Better Hair health

Recently it has been reported that, most of the people facing the issue of hair fall or hair loss. People do not know the reason and this hair fall issue affects their mental health. The main reason can be a severe illness like; nutrient deficiency, covid-19, dengue or long stay in a hospital. So for that what we can do, first consult a dermatologist and secondly, correct your diet and for that consult a dietician or a nutritionist.

Some people say we should include protein, zinc, vitamin D and iron rich food in our diet, yes we should do that but actually we need each and every single nutrient for healthy hair. Confused why? Let me explain you.

Vitamin D requires calcium for absorption, amino acids helps in absorption of zinc, pyridoxine helps in protein absorption, vitamin C requires for iron absorption and so on. That is why we say take balance diet and for that what you can do;

  • Take sunshine at least for 15-30 min, there is no other better way to take vitamin D
  • Include 2-3 serving of fruits
  • Take 5-6 servings of vegetables
  • Include pulses and cereals in your diet
  • Include dairy food, eggs, chicken and fish, these are the good source of high biological protein
  • Start to drink 2-3 L water per day
  • Include handful of nuts and seeds like; groundnuts, almonds, cashew, walnut, pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds, chia seeds.
  • And at last have some patience, it will going to take few months.
  • Stop searching on Google but I know you will do that again and again, OK go search but your topic should be healthy recipe ideas.
  • Try different recipes and food, motivate yourself, be positive and don’t take stress
  • Always remember good things take time.




Dietary Supplements Claims & Labelling: Truth vs Reality ( With Sp. reference to U.S. Food and Drug Administration)

Dietary Supplements Claims & Labelling: Truth vs Reality ( With Sp. reference to U.S. Food and Drug Administration)


Dietary supplements include such ingredients as vitamins, minerals, herbs, amino acids, and enzymes. Dietary supplements are marketed in forms such as tablets, capsules, softgels, gelcaps, powders, and liquids. The FDA has established good manufacturing practices (GMPs) that companies must follow to help ensure the identity, purity, strength, and composition of their dietary supplements. The FDA periodically inspects facilities that manufacture supplements.

Role of FDA

FDA regulates both finished dietary supplement products and dietary ingredients. The FDA is concerned about the quality of dietary supplements in the United States. There is little product reliability, and because patent protection is not available for natural products, there is little incentive for manufacturers to invest resources in improving product standardization. In addition to the confusion that this introduces to consumers, the lack of reliable and consistent products is a challenge to the research and clinical practice communities. Without consistent products, research is extremely difficult to conduct or generalize. Furthermore, without high-quality research, evidence-based clinical recommendations cannot be made to guide patients.

As a result of their pharmacological properties, dietary supplements, particularly botanical products, carry a risk of adverse effects and interactions. Unlike vitamins and minerals, herbal supplements are composed of many active compounds, and often, the primary active ingredient is unknown. Without knowing the active ingredient(s), it is a challenge for manufacturers to set standards that bear any therapeutic meaning. As such, consistency and quality checks throughout the manufacturing process garner even more importance.

Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act

To improve product consistency and reliability, the committee recommends that the U.S. Congress and federal agencies, in consultation with industry, research scientists, consumers, and other stakeholders, amend the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 and the current regulatory scheme for dietary supplements, with emphasis on strengthening:

  • Need-to-shelf quality control
  • Accuracy and comprehensiveness in labelling and other disclosures
  • Enforcement efforts against inaccurate and misleading claims
  • Research into how consumers use supplements
  • Incentives for privately funded research into the efficacies of products and brands
  • Consumer protection against all potential hazards.

Dietary supplements- Good or Bad

The conclusion from the available data (new and old) is that consumption of dietary supplements for prolonged periods appears not to be safe and is not cost-effective in primary prevention of chronic disease in the general non-pregnant adult. Practitioners should evaluate each case individually and take a decision based on available evidence-based data when considering dietary supplements in this population. Given the potential for widespread use of dietary supplements, there is a need for robust study methods in the future.

Several surveys have determined that consumers really want protection against false claims and unsafe products. A Roper survey of 1,480 persons age 50 or older conducted in 2001, for example, found that about 75% of the respondents wanted the government to review safety data and approve dietary supplements prior to sale and to verify all health-related claims before they can be included in advertisements and on product labels.

Nutritional support v/s Drug

FDA regulates dietary supplements under a different set of regulations than those covering “conventional” foods and drug products. Under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA) allows dietary supplements to bear “statements of support” that:

  • Claim a benefit related to classical nutrient deficiency disease.
  • Describe how ingredients affect the structure or function of the human body.
  • Characterize the documented mechanism by which the ingredients act to maintain structure or function.
  • Describe general well-being from consumption of the ingredients.

The statement “calcium builds strong bones and teeth” is said to be a classic example of an allowable structure/function statement for a food. What constitutes an allowable statement for a supplement has not been established either by law or by regulation.

To be legal under DSHEA, a “nutritional support” statement must not be a “drug” claim. In other words, it should not suggest that the product or ingredient is intended for prevention or treatment of disease. However, the marketplace has been flooded by statements related to organs (such as “supports the eyes” or “supports the cardiovascular system”) that are really drug claims.

Customers be Careful

Actually, few statements about the biochemical or physiologic properties of nutrients have practical value for consumers. By definition, every essential nutrient is important to proper body function. Simple statements about nutrient function are more likely to be misleading than helpful.

A statement such as “vitamin A is essential to good eye function” could suggest:

  • People need to take special steps to be sure they get enough
  • Extra vitamin A may enhance eyesight
  • Common eye problems may be caused vitamin A deficiency or remedies by taking supplements.

 To be completely truthful, a “nutritional support” statement about vitamin A would have to counter all three misconceptions and indicate that people eating sensibly don’t need to worry about whether their vitamin A intake is adequate. In other words, truthful statements about nutrient supplements would have to indicate who doesn’t need them. No vitamin manufacturer has ever done this or ever will. Since herbs are not nutrients, the concept of “nutritional support” statements for herbs is absurd.

Under DSHEA, manufacturers who make statements of “nutritional support” must have substantiation that such statements are truthful and not misleading. The law also requires that the Secretary of Health and Human Services be notified no later than 30 days after the first marketing of a supplement for which the statement is being made. The law does not define substantiation.

Some times FDA also find it Difficult

Historically, the FDA has considered literature used directly in connection with the sale of a product to be “labelling” for the product. DSHEA exempts publications from “labelling” if they:

  • Are not false or misleading
  • Do not promote a particular manufacturer or brand
  • Present a “balanced” view of pertinent scientific information
  • Pre physically separated from the items discussed.

However, since most “Dietary supplements” are useless, irrationally formulated, and/or overpriced, the supplement industry has little reason to provide literature that is not misleading. In addition, the FDA does not have the resources to police the huge numbers of “support” statements to ensure that they are appropriately “balanced.”

Section 303 of the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 authorizes health claims based on current authoritative statements by U.S. Government agencies or the National Academy of Sciences about the relationship between a nutrient and health-related condition. Under this provision, if the FDA considers a claim of this type to be misleading, it must issue a regulation or go to court to stop its use. The fact that these procedures are cumbersome further weakens the FDA’s ability to protect consumers.

Ms. ARUSHI SAXENAAssistant Professor

Rakshpal Bahadur College of Pharmacy, Bareilly.

Solar energy

Solar energy

We are living in a society where electricity is the primary requirement. There are several conventional and non-conventional sources are available in the world. Conventional sources are limited like oil, coal etc. Therefore scientists are forced to go through non- conventional sources. Sun is the primary source of all type of energy. Solar energy is very useful type of renewable energy. In solar system photovoltaic cells are used to convert sunlight into electricity. High cost is major drawback of solar energy.

 Apart from this maximum power point tracking is also a challenge for engineers. Many algorithms have been proposed by engineers to obtain the MPPT at reasonable cost. Furthermore, many dc-dc converter topologies also have been proposed for the purpose of high voltage gain. These converters are basically dc-dc converters which are used in solar system. Normal converters have a limitation that is why different topologies are used for dc-dc converters. Many researchers are doing work for reducing its cost. However, high cost and disposing the solar cell waste still remains a major problem of solar energy system.

Vinod Shrivastava

RBCET Bareilly



One of the most important and innovative sectors of a modern economy is its financial system. This set of institutions and instruments forms the vital circulatory system through which the savings decisions of one group of individuals and nations are channeled to the investments of other businesses and nations

Financial System plays a very important role in the functioning of a modern complex economy, in promoting the economic development and in the working of monetary-credit policy. Everywhere in the world households do the most of the savings. In India also the bulk of savings is done by households. About half of it, is invested directly by them in the physical assets and only the rest is committed in the financial assets.

In industrially developed western economies the proportion of the financial investment of household savings is much higher. Financial assets are the vehicles through which the savings of the surplus spenders are mobilized and allocated among deficit spenders. Some part of this mobilization –allocation is done by primary securities acquired directly by the savers but the bulk of the financial savings is handled by FIs.

The more numerous, varied, well organized, geographically well distributed and efficient the FIs are, the more developed the financial infrastructure of an economy is Inducement to save.

Savers require store of value to hold their savings. The financial system promotes savings by providing a wide array of financial assets as store of value aided by the services of financial markets and financial intermediary of various kinds. For wealth holders, all this offers ample choice of portfolios with attractive combinations of income, safety, and yield. With financial progress and innovation in financial technology, the scope of portfolio choice has also improved.

Therefore, it is widely held that the saving- income ratio is positively elastic with respect to both financial assets and financial institutions. That is financial progress generally induces larger saving out of the same level of real income. Factories, farms, and shops need to be run by their owners in order to earn income.

Owners of financial assets are completely absolved of their responsibility, so that they can devote their full time and energy to whatever other pursuits they would like to follow. Owners of financial assets are only the ultimate (or indirect) owners and not the immediate (or direct) owners of tangible assets. The latter are the borrowers of the funds who are responsible for the actual management of tangible assets. They assume all the risks of production.

Thus, financial assets have made possible the separation of ultimate ownership and management of tangible assets.

Vinay K Srivastava Teaches at I.T.S Ghaziabad.

(Guest Blogger on Our Site)

His Twitter handle is @meetdrvinay

ERS (Electric Road System):- Future of Green World

ERS (Electric Road System):- Future of Green World

An electric road, e-road, or electric road system (ERS) is a road which supplies electric power to vehicles travelling on it. Common implementations are overhead power lines above the road and ground-level power supply through conductive rails or inductive coils embedded in the road. Overhead power lines are limited to commercial vehicles while ground level power can be used by any vehicle, which allows for public charging through power metering and billing systems. Of the available systems, ground –level conductive rails are estimated to be the most cost effective. Korea was the first to implement a public electric road with a commercial bus line in 2013 after testing an experimental shuttle service in 2009.Sweden has been performing assessments of various electric road technologies since 2013 and expects to start formulating a national electric road system in 2022 and finished planning by 2033.

Technicality of Wireless Charging

Inductive Power Transfer from Road: 

  • Here power transfer takes place between coils embedded in the road and coils in the vehicle without any wires.
  • The power from the grid is converted into high frequency AC power to create a magnetic field which is then picked up by the coils under vehicle to produce voltage. Automatically tune the frequency of the radio wave. 
  • Charging with great efficiency can be achieved at a certain distance of action.
  • The efficiency drops dramatically if the device is too close or too far away from the charger.
  • The floor of a car is about 20 centimeters (8 inches) away from the road’s surface. It is ideal for wireless charging.
  • In the source, radio waves of a certain frequency are generated to excite electrons in a coil of wire.
  • The receiver in the electric car also has an inductor made from a coil of wires.
  • When the two inductors are put near each other, the energy gets coupled from the source to the receiver.
  • In the receiver, a component called a rectifier converts the energy from the radio waves to usable electrical energy for the car.


Electric road technologies have great potential to reduce dependence on fossil fuels, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce air pollution and reduce noise in urban areas. Electric cars are critically important to the future of the automobile industry and to the environment. Electric Vehicles reduces carbon emissions significantly in the area where it is used. Consumption of decreasing oil supplies, concerns over air and noise pollution, and pollution caused (and energy consumed) by  abandoned cars and  the complication of recycling gasoline-powered cars are all driving forces that seem to be pushing towards success of the electric car.

Best Electrified Road GIFs | Gfycat
Top 30 Electrified Road GIFs | Find the best GIF on Gfycat
Turning Roads into Smart Charging Solutions for Electric Cars | Energy |  RESET.org

Heera Singh-Faculty Dept. of Basic sciences RBMI Bareilly

Ejector based refrigeration: A breakthrough in Refrigeration system

Ejector Based Refrigeration: A Breakthrough in Refrigeration System

1.1 Ejector & its configuration:

An ejector designed such that it doesn’t have any moving part and can provide expansion in the primary nozzle by utilizing the K.E of one fluid to commence the flow of another fluid. In a standard vapor compression cycle, ejector can play the same role as that of expansion device with significantly less losses. An expansion of high pressure primary fluid occurs isentropically in the primary nozzle of the ejector. Therefore, the improvement in refrigeration effect and throttling losses are reduced to some extent. Ejector assembly also rises the pressure at the suction of compressor inlet above the evaporator pressure thus decreasing the pressure ratio and compressor power consumption. 

Figure 1.1: Ejector configuration

1.2 Vapor compression refrigeration system:

Vapour compression refrigeration (VCR) system is dominantly used in refrigeration cycles. It has four main components such as compressor which consumes the power input, condenser which reject the heat, expansion device which throttle the fluid and evaporator which provide the cooling are represented in a schematic diagram in figure 1.2. The refrigerant as a working fluid undergoes through phase change in the cyclic process.

Compressor sucks the refrigerant in a saturated vapour state and compresses it to superheated state with high pressure and temperature then enters into the condenser where superheated refrigerant transfers its energy to the ambient and condenses. It leaves as saturated liquid at the condenser outlet and then moves into the expansion device where this high pressure saturated liquid is throttled to low pressure and temperature. A two-phase mixture of refrigerant is present at the exit of expansion device which enters the evaporator where refrigerant with low pressure and temperature absorbs the heat from refrigerated space and evaporates, thus producing desired effect or cooling effect.

Figure 1.2: Schematic diagram of standard vapor compression refrigeration cycle

Saturated vapour at the exit of evaporator enters the compressor and this way cycle continues. In standard vapour compression refrigeration system, capillary tube, orifice valve, hand operated valve, electronic expansion valves and thermostatic expansion valve is used as a throttling device for the expansion process and these throttling processes are constant enthalpy process (i.e. isenthalpic process). Isenthalpic process is a highly irreversible process as it causes increase in entropy of the system. Which results in decrease in refrigeration capacity of the system and considered as throttling loss. This expansion leads to irreversibility in the system and expansion work recovery from such an isenthalpic expansion is not possible.

The compression process in conventional VCR systems requires huge amount of work input in the form of electrical energy.  Electricity production demands burning of fossil fuels which results in significant environmental deterioration. That’s why, minimum electrical energy requirement is an important objective in any power production process. These problems gives the direction to modify the standard VCR systems without a loss in the performance. This can be obtained by using an ejector as the expansion device in VCR systems.

1.3 Ejector expansion refrigeration system:

An ejector designed such that it doesn’t have any moving part and can provide expansion in the primary nozzle by utilizing the K.E of one fluid to commence the flow of another fluid. In a standard vapour compression cycle, ejector can play the same role as that of expansion device with significantly less losses. An expansion of high pressure primary fluid occurs isentropically in the primary nozzle of the ejector. Therefore, the improvement in refrigeration effect and throttling losses are reduced to some extent. Ejector assembly also rises the pressure at the suction of compressor inlet above the evaporator pressure thus decreasing the pressure ratio and compressor power consumption. 

Thus, ejector as an expansion device in VCRS can provide an increment in COP by incorporating the above advantages. Ejector assembly have no moving part so no vibration and less maintenance is required. These cyclic systems which construct ejector for expansion in refrigeration cycles are marked as ‘Ejector expansion refrigeration system’ (EERS). A schematic view of ejector is represented in figure 1.2.

Figure 1.3: Schematic diagram of ejector expansion refrigeration cycle

1.4 Performance parameters of an ejector:

The entrainment ratio μ is defined as the ratio of secondary/entrained mass flow rate of fluid to primary mass flow rate of fluid. It is used to evaluate refrigeration cycle efficiency and a measure of entraining capacity of ejector.

The pressure lift ratio (PLR) is defined as the ratio of pressure of refrigerant mixture at diffuser outlet to the pressure of secondary fluid at evaporator outlet .It is a measure of operative range of the cycle.

Cooling Capacity is the refrigeration effect obtained in the evaporator.

     Qe = ṁC (Tin−Tout)                                                                                            (1.3)                

Energy performance ratio/COP of EERS can be defined as

Entrainment ratio must be significantly high for having a high COP. However, increasing it beyond a reasonable limit will decrease the primary mass flow rate and thus will decrease the entraining potential of the primary fluid.

The PLR should also be as high as possible, as higher pressure at diffuser outlet will provide significant reduction in compressor work input.

1.5 Research outcomes of Ejector model performed by researchers & its scope:

A modified vapour compression refrigeration system incorporating ejector as an expansion device has been experimentally investigated by using the refrigerant R134a and the performance parameters have been comparatively studied with the conventional VCRS. In this experimental setup, the conventional expansion devices such as thermostatic expansion valve, capillary tube, needle valves etc. have been replaced by a two phase ejector. The use of ejector provides an improvement in COP and saving in compression work by replacing isenthalpic expansion in convention expansion devices with an isentropic expansion in the primary nozzle of ejector.. In this experimental study, the performance parameters such as cooling effect, compressor power consumption, entrainment ratio, etc. have been evaluated and the effect of variation of condenser inlet water temperature on the COP, compressor power, entrainment ratio of the system have been evaluated at a fixed evaporator temperature of 100C. The experimental results have been comparatively discussed to validate the better performance of ejector expansion refrigeration system over conventional system. An improvement of 6.42% to 9.97% was recorded in the COP of the ejector expansion refrigeration system over the conventional vapour compression refrigeration system.

Thus ejector system can provide sufficient amount of improvement in refrigeration devices by improving the performance parameters.

 Abhishek KumarAssistant professor-Mechanical Engineering Department RBCET

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