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A Review on Phytochemical Screening of Medicinal Constituents of Calotropis Gigantia

Phytochemicals are chemical compounds produced by plants, generally to help them resist fungi, bacteria and plant virus infections, and also consumption by insects and other animals. The name comes from Greek φυτόν (phyton) ‘plant’. Some phytochemicals have been used as poisons and others as traditional medicine. Though traditionally medicinal plants are used for the treatment, cure and prevention of numerous ailments but in a recent few years like post-covid, there is a tremendous rise in the use of herbal formulations and their low toxicity, side affects or adverse drug reactions are observed.
As a term, phytochemicals is generally used to describe plant compounds that are under research with unestablished effects on health, and are not scientifically defined as essential nutrients. Regulatory agencies governing food labeling in Europe and the United States have provided guidance for industry to limit or prevent health claims about phytochemicals on food product or nutrition labels. Phytochemical screening is a group of methods which not only helps to reveal the constituents of the plant extracts and the one that predominates over the others but also is helpful in searching for bioactive or pharmacologically active chemical constituents those can be used in the synthesis of various other pharmacologically active drugs.

About the plant
Calotropis gigantea, belongs to the Apocynaceae family, which is commonly known as milkweed or Aak. Plants of this genus are known as milkweeds due to the exudation of white and sticky latex from different plant parts. Calotropis gigantea, the crown flower, is a species of Calotropis native to Cambodia, Vietnam, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Sri Lanka, India, China, Pakistan, and Nepal. Phytochemical screening of Calotropis gigantea latex showed the presence of alkaloids,
steroids, cardiac glycosides and terpenes. The root, bark and milk of Calotropis gigantea are used as medicine for the treatment of dysentery cutaneous affections, the leaves are applied on paralyzed parts, painful joints. The milk is useful in leprosy and ringworm. The extract of flowers and leaves has shown hypoglycemic effect in preclinical studies.
Pharmacological actions of various parts of plant has been tabulated below:

S. no.Pharmacological activitiesParts/extracts/possible chemical constituents
1Wound healing potentialLatex: aqueous extract /Latex
2Anticoccidial activityDried leaves powder
3Toxicity activityLeaves: aqueous extract
4Biopesticidal/insecticidal activityLeaves: extract
5Antimycoplasmal activityLeaves: acetone extract
6Hepatoprotective activityRoot bark: methanolic extract/ Flowers: hydroethanolic extract/ Roots: chloroform extract
7Antimicrobial/antibacterial activityLeaves: methanolic extract, flavonoids (quercetin-3-O– rutinoside)
8Central nervous system activityLatex proteins
9Antioxidant activityLeaves, flower, fruit, latex/ Bark: ethanolic extract
10Antinociceptive activityLatex protein
S. no.Pharmacological activitiesParts/extracts/possible chemical constituents
11Antihelmintic activityFlowers: crude powder, aqueous and methanolic extract
Latex: fresh, dried aqueous extract
12Antiinflammatory activityDry latex /Stem bark: chloroform and hydro-alcoholic extract
13Antidiarroheal activityBark: Arkamula Tvarka (Ayurvedic preparation)
14Antifungal activity Antimycotic activity against dermatophytesAqueous bark extract Latex Fresh latex
15Larvicidal activityCrude latex and ethanolic extract of leaf
16Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) inhibitor activityLatex
17Antifertility activityEthanolic extract of roots
Abortifacient activityLatex
Antisperm activityRoot: chloroform extract
Oestrogenic/antiovulatory activityRoots: ethanolic and aqueous extract
18Plasma clotting activityProtein fraction isolated from fresh latex
19Antiplasmodial activityDifferent plant parts: ethyl acetate, ethanolic and acetone extract/ Leaves extract
20Antipyretic activityDry latex: aqueous extract
Flowers: ethanolic extract
21Antiasthmatic activityFlowers
22Anticonvulsant activityRoot extracts
23Cytotoxic activityRoot (2′′-oxovoruscharin)
24Analgesic activityFlowers: Ethanolic extract
25.Antihyperglycemic activityLeaves: pet ether, methanol and aqueous extracts
26Antiarthritis activityLatex
27Antimolluscicidal activityLatex: 95% aqueous ethanol (uscharin)
28Antitermites activityLatex
29Antimigraine activityDried terminal leaves
30Anti-ulcer activityRoot: chloroform extract/ Plant: 50% ethanolic extract
31Spasmolytic activityPlant: aqueous extract
32Allelopathic activityLeaves: aqueous extract
33Anti-keloidal activityLatex
34Anti-hyperbilirubinemic activityLeaves: aqueous extract
35Antiapoptotic activityLatex
  1. Plant Tissue Homogenization-

In this dried or wet, fresh plant parts are grinded in a blender to fine particles, put in a certain quantity

of solvent and shaken vigorously for 5 – 10 min or left for 24 h after which the extract is filtered. The filtrate then may be dried under reduced pressure and re-dissolved in the solvent to determine the concentration. Some researchers however centrifuged the filtrate for clarification of the extract.

2.     Serial Exhaustive Extraction-

It is another common method of extraction which involves successive extraction with solvents of increasing polarity from a non-polar (hexane) to a more polar solvent (methanol) to ensure that a wide polarity range of compounds could be extracted.

3. Soxhlet Extraction-

Soxhlet extraction is only required where the desired compound has a limited solubility in a solvent, and the impurity is insoluble in that solvent. If the desired compound has a high solubility in a solvent then a simple filtration can be used to separate the compound from the insoluble substance.

4. Maceration-

In maceration (for fluid extract), whole or coarsely powdered plant- drug is kept in contact with the solvent in a stoppered container for a defined period with frequent agitation until soluble matter is dissolved. This method is best suitable for use in case of the thermolabile drugs.

5. Decoction-

This method is used for the extraction of the water soluble and heat stable constituents from crude drug by boiling it in water for 15 minutes, cooling, straining and passing sufficient cold water through the drug to produce the required volume.

  • Infusion It is a dilute solution of the readily soluble components of the crude drugs. Fresh infusions are prepared by macerating the solids for a short period of time with either cold or boiling water.
  • Digestion-This is a kind of maceration in which gentle heat is applied during the maceration extraction process. It is used when moderately elevated temperature is not objectionable and the solvent efficiency of the menstrum is increased thereby.
8. Percolation-

This is the procedure used most frequently to extract active ingredients in the preparation of tinctures and fluid extracts.

  • Sonication– The procedure involves the use of ultrasound with frequencies ranging from 20 kHz to 2000 kHz; this increases the permeability of cell walls and produces cavitation.

Phytoconstituents present in Calotropis gigantea-

The leaves contain several active chemicals, including three toxic glycosides: calotropin, uscharin, and calotoxin. The plant contains Cardenolide glycosides which have Digoxin like effects and can cause severe cardiotoxicity. The latex of Calotropis gigantea contains (1) resinols as esters of steamvolatile fatty acids (acetic and isovaleric).

Mr. Mukesh kr. Bhardwaj (Assoc. Professor)
Department of Pharmacy
RBMI Group of Institution

Emerging Grooming Market in India

Last time when you have visited salon, do you counted how much money you have spent? Can you recall the brand for products your salon used? Have you noticed number of employees working in the saloon?

If you answer is affirmative then you also realize that how big the market is.  As per Financial Express report Indian saloon market was of rupees 55,000 crore in financial year 2020 and is expected to grow to 1.89 lakh crore in financial year 2025 at a CAGR of 28%.

The industry that comprises of 6.5 million players consisting of beauty parlors and barber shops comes into Limelight. As more and more people are becoming aware about self-grooming this industry is keep on setting new benchmarks in their service offerings.

As per the economic times report over the past 2 years salon chains such as Enrich Salon, Kapils Salon, YLG, Juice salons, Bodycraft salons & spa, Truefitt & Hill and jean-Claude Biguine have transitioned themselves into beauty retailers also, apart from the grooming services.

The industry onset new players and focusing on privacy and personal touch to become client oriented. With the news of acquiring Chennai based Groom India Salon and spa brand Natural salon and spa, Reliance Retail is entering into the foray to compete with Unilever’s Lakme and regional brands like Gitanjali, Javed Habib etc, we will witness a mass disruption in the industry in forth coming years.

The industry is to be more personalized and client oriented to break traditional norms and offers experiential sales.

Dr. Manish Agarwal

Director, Management & Commerce

RBMI Group Of Institutions

Indian Hot Spice market becoming hotter

Masala(Spices), an ingredient, is the key to taste for food in India. According to IMARC report the Indian spice market size reached to INR 142,569.3 Cr. in 2021.

India is the land of diverse culture where food habits, preparations and taste changes when you move from one region to another. In last two years due to Covid-19 experimentation in terms of cooking has increase so as the demand of multiple spices. This bring the attention of all major players to this market where about 70% stake is still in the hands of unorganized sector.

Its all began two years back with the acquisition of Kolkata based spice brand Sunrise foods by ITC and merger of Norway based MTR Foods business & Kerala based Eastern Condiments Pvt. Limited. Later earlier this year it was speculated that HUL (Hindustan Uni Lever) was acquiring MDH(Mahesh di Hatti).

All of a sudden, the Indian spice market come in lime light. With the acquisition of Badshah Masala by Dabur, it becomes clear how hot is spice market of India. One can understand this that with this mere announcement Dabur stock price rose 3.24% as per the Economic Times report. Further if you check the key spice makers in the country include MDH, Everest Food Products Pvt Limited, Aachi Foods, Sakthi Masala Private Limited and Eastern Condiments Private Limited and everyone would like to increase its customer base. As per report published by Money Control in March ,2022 the overall spice market is growing at an annual rate of 7-10 percent and branded products at 10-15 percent.

With such a vast opportunity available every major player focuses on its supply chain and distribution to reach to Tier II cities as well to increase its consumer base. As per MINT report of August,2021 the CAGR of blended spices will grow at the rate of 25% till 2025. In the forthcoming years we will witness large number of mergers and acquisition in this industry as every player will try to increase its market share in this evergreen growing taste market.

Dr. Manish Agarwal

Director, Management & Commerce

RBMI Group Of Institutions

DEI (Diversity, Equity & Inclusion) in India

Mohan is recently selected in a Multinational Corporation (MNC) and three questions worried him

  1. With whom he has to work with, what are their skills, what are their socio-economic background, what is their demographic profile (i.e. Gender, Age, Education, Language, Region etc.) 
  2. Does his co-workers/team-mates accept him and how they behave with him?
  3. Does he feel comfortable with them?

The answer to these questions to him lies in adoption of DEI concept in any organization, where “D” is Diversity, “E” is Equity & “I” is Inclusion. Let us understand it in detail.

Diversity is all about different people working in an organization which include their education, skills, socio-economic background, gender, age region etc.

Equity is all about getting an equal opportunity to grow and get equal treatment & acceptance with everyone. It also includes impartial treatment.

Inclusion is the feeling of belongingness where everyone supports each other. It is all about one’s participation in decision making process and where every employee feels valued and respected.

India itself is a diverse country and where people from different region, and languages work all together to get their livelihood. India is also an no exception in adopting the concept of DEI. In last few years you might be observe that Indian workplaces are more sensitive towards welfare of their employees thru DEI for example earlier maternity leaves were of 6 weeks but today they are of 6 months, SEBI is making it compulsory to have at least one woman in board of directors of the company. Further IT companies are also claiming that they will genderly balance their workforce by 2025. Companies like Zomato, Amazon, Swiggy, Flipkart are also appointing deliver women whereas car rentals like OLA and Uber are appointing lady taxi drivers.

New age organizations are committed to drive through purpose and performance. They are taking the employee experience beyond conventional practices. Leaders are creating work culture in a way that maximizes the human potential and channelizes all the efforts towards achievement of complex goals.

In the coming future, we are going to observe a sea change in Indian workplaces where focus is on gender sensitivity, equity and work-life balance to improve both social and personal lives.

Dr. Manish Agarwal

Director, Management & Commerce

RBMI Group Of Institutions

Disruption in Indian Sweet Market

According to IMARC Group report Indian packaged sweet market value is INR 4,368 Cr in 2021. This is expected to reach INR 12,763Cr by 2027 exhibiting a CAGR of 19.40% during 2022-2027.

Further as per Financial EXPRESS report (4TH April,2022) traditional sweet market is sized of INR 60,000-65,000 Cr in which only 6-7 % share lie with organized players like Haldiram and Bikano.

With the entry of Reliance retail in the foray the market scenario would be different. According to The Economic Times (19, Oct.2022), Reliance Industries (RIL) has entered a distribution partnership with over 50 traditional regional Sweet (Mithai) makers across India. These partners will mass produce and distribute the sweets which would be available across all Reliance stores like, Smart bazaar, Reliance Smart and other grocery formats besides Reliance Retail e-commerce platform JIO-Mart.

As per reports all the sweet makers are being told and trained to modernize packaging for developing extended shelf life. This partnership led to over 500 packs and hundred varieties of traditional sweets. Similar to modern stores which sell chocolates, Reliance is creating bays and free-standing units for traditional sweets.

Some of the partners are Doodh Misthan Bhandar, Jaipur; Lal Sweet, Mysore; Prabhuji & Bikharam Chandmal, West Bengal; Chawannilal Halwai, Ajmer etc. The partnership also allows small local sweet makers go mainstream. The only challenge is to cope-up with the heavy marketing budget and retail clout of packaged chocolate makers.

One thing is sure here that in the near future as consumers we will taste the traditional Mithai (Sweets) of different region in India while sitting at our domestic places. We will also witness a massive marketing warfare in sweet industry which will change its forever.

Dr. Manish Agarwal

Director, Management & Commerce Department,

RBMI Group Of Institutions

Why you should pursue MCA?

The education sector is inundated with courses, and colleges are constantly offering new ones. You can choose the most appropriate course for you with the help of proper guidance and counselling. The decision of which course to take depends on your interests and potential career paths after you finish the course.  For more than a decade, MCA (Master of Computer Application) has been a popular course among students. Anyone having a Bachelor’s degree in Science, Arts, or Commerce is eligible to apply for M.C.A.


MCA is a two-year postgraduate degree designed for students who want to go deeper into the field of computer application development using latest programming languages. The MCA course is geared primarily toward application development, therefore it emphasizes the most recent programming tools and languages in an effort to create faster and better programme. The curriculum is aimed to provide in-depth knowledge of disciplines such as computer architecture, computer graphics, database management systems, computer networks, and programming languages. This master’s degree is suitable for those looking to further their app development career by developing an advanced technical foundation while working with cutting-edge technology. Students will gain a deeper understanding of topics such as systems design, computer networks, application software development, system administration, database administration, web design and development, data analysis, Blockchain Technology, Cloud computing, Data mining, and so on while taking this course.

Job Opportunities after MCA

An MCA degree will assist you in obtaining a better job. The course content is comprehensive, with a strong emphasis on computer application development. It will help you advance in your chosen sector by preparing you for the corporate world and the government. This implies that once you complete your MCA, you will be better prepared for a career.

An MCA degree holder can find job at top IT firms in a variety of roles such as:

  • Software Developer
  • Database Engineer
  • Web Designer/Developer
  • Cloud Architect
  • Data Scientist
  • Business Analyst
  • Quality Assurance Analyst
  • IT Architect
  • Project Manager
  • Software Consultant
  • Troubleshooter
  • Network Engineer
  • Social Media Manager, and many more

As a result, MCA graduates have numerous job opportunities, including software development, hardware technology, internet, and networking. However, whatever field you select, you will find a rewarding job that matches you. If you are looking for a new job or want to start a new career in a different industry, now is a fantastic time to get an MCA degree.

MCA qualified people with significant value addition and profiles can work in highly remunerated positions with some of the leading firms, such as

  • Infosys
  • TCS
  • Wipro Systems
  • SAP
  • Cognizant
  • Accenture
  • HCL Technologies
  • IBM and more

It is therefore advised that the MCA degree be obtained from a reputable institute such as RBMI. We at the RBMI Group of Institutions, Bareilly, have been developing and enhancing your IT abilities for over 25 years in the region, thanks to our strong academia-industry link and strong alumni network.

Dr. Rajesh Verma (Director) & UDIT AGARWAL (Associate. Professor)

Computer Applications Department

RBMI Group of Institutions

Ways to Promote Professional Growth and Development in Your Pharmacy

You want your pharmaceutical crew to be efficient and productive. To do so, they must stay current on professional innovations, both technological and medical scientific.

They, too, must continue to learn and progress in their careers. Here are several strategies to urge pharmacists, pharmacy techs, and other staff members to do so.

New challenges

Giving your employees new and different duties as they become more proficient at their professions and earn more experience is one method to support professional progress. This will allow them to expand their knowledge and skill set while also exposing them to new parts of pharmacy.

This also helps employees acquire confidence in their abilities and fosters a better work culture by demonstrating greater faith in them.

Encouraging teamwork

Employees in a pharmacy typically have their own areas of specialty. When staff members collaborate, they learn from one another and broaden their knowledge of various areas and features of pharmacy.

Some pharmacy technicians, for example, may be more proficient in computer technology and its application to the processing and distribution of pharmaceuticals, whilst others may be better at dealing with patient issues, conversing with patients, and teaching them. When these technicians collaborate, they can improve their skills by learning from one another.

Encouraging training

Managers can also foster professional development by encouraging their employees to continue their pharmacy education.

On a regular basis, pharmacists must receive continuing education credits. In addition, they may pursue toward certification in a specific specialty, such as paediatric pharmacy, nuclear pharmacy, pharmacotherapy, or oncology pharmacy. They could also take business courses to understand more about that side of the profession.


Giving regular feedback to staff members about their performance is another way to help them with their professional growth. Staff can learn from the feedback, and find out where and how they can make improvements.

Mr. Sanjesh Kumar (Assistant Professor), Pharmacy

Mrs. Shivani saxena (Assistant Professor), Pharmacy

RBMI Group Of Institutions

Emotional Intelligence

Have you ever perceived your emotions? Or, emotions of others? Have you ever appreciated your boss for being nice and understanding? Have you ever noticed how some of your colleagues rightly guess your next step? All these indicate about EQ or emotional intelligence. Thus, if you can control your emotions and have the ability to influence and manage the emotions of others you are Emotionally Intelligent. Emotional Intelligence (EI) is the ability to interpret, manage and analyze emotions.

EI term was first discussed in 1964 but it became popular when a science journalist Daniel Goleman wrote a book on the same title in 1995. According to Goleman EI is composed of various expertise and features that drives leadership performance. EI is a key to success as it helps you to regulate yourself, predict and manage others and in return achieve success. The fact is that it is a quality which may be acquired and enhanced with practice.

People with high emotional intelligence can be easily differentiated from others as they can handle criticism easily without any denial and anxiety. When you are self-aware and have a clear understanding of what makes you angry or happy or what bores you up or interests you, you are ready to note it, analyze it and correct it. If you are having high EI, the other feature would be of open-mindedness. This implies that you will have sympathetic ears and have a knack of helping out others and setting things right. As you won’t be jumping to conclusions and judgments on mere sharing of a situation or issues you become a popular figure to be approached.

Moreover, EI requires you to seclude your own emotions from the facts and figures being shared and become a good listener. One more important fact about EI is that it gives importance to speaking out tough truth or feedback or messages. Your main aim will be to get the message delivered as it is without being softened or sugarcoated. In order to assess EI in a person you may consider his/her habit of looking up for excuses. If you are emotionally intelligent you will offer simple apology for the wrong you have done and get back to the track.

Important Elements of EI

  1. Self- Awareness

When a person has deeply done his SWOT analysis that is studied his strengths weaknesses opportunities and threats, he can easily understand his emotions and the events that trigger his negative side.

  • Self- Management

EI helps to keep cool and avoid emotional outbursts at workplace. As such stressful situations may damage reputation of a person.  

  • Social Awareness

If a person can study the feelings of others, understand their body language, interpret from the person’s voice tone and nonverbal cues, the person is emotionally intelligent. Or has a high EQ.

  • Relationship Management

Workplace requires leadership roles and effective communication in order to have a positive impact on the emotions of subordinated and peer group. All this may be achieved through EI.

Building High EI in Workplace

Emotional Quotient (EQ) is different from Intelligence Quotient (IQ). IQ may not be changed but EQ or EI may be learned, improved and developed.

  1. Understand yourself

 EI may be improved by looking within. Throughout the day try to understand your emotions and feelings and try to label it as accurately as possible. Whatever you do – act or react try to find out the emotional motivation behind it. Thus whether you do something positive or negative its ultimate source is your emotion.

  • Self-evaluation

There are ‘n’ number of EI test available on internet. Attempt them and try to discover your emotional skills and analyze your strengths and where you need improvement.

  •  Embrace Conflict

Instead of avoiding conflicts try to solve them as it would help to remove bitterness and negativity among the team members and would provide a healthy way of expression and result in healthy interaction and bonding.

  • Do not Judge

Sometimes practicing empathy gives you a totally different viewpoint than judging others harshly.

  • Listen

Emotionally intelligent person is an active listener and is able to understand what is being conveyed between the lines and what emotions the persons want to convey to you.

  • Be Humble

There are all kinds of people in the workplace. Some want attention, praises and always boast about their accomplishments but have no concern about others. While people with high EI are just the opposite of such people as they are not dependent upon external praises and divert praises and attention on others.

  • Be Responsible

People with poor social intelligence avoid responsibility. Apologizing for your mistakes builds strong EI and improves self-esteem and confidence.

  • Think of the Consequences

Your actions attract reactions. So think for a while about the consequences before doing anything, as it will trigger emotions of others which may be positive or negative. Emotionally intelligent person thinks about the consequences and find the ways to do things differently.

  • Empathy

You may build strong relations with your coworkers by recognizing their needs and wants and seeing the world their way.

  1.  Share your Feelings

Expressing yourself in a positive and humble manner keeps you upright with your coworkers. Those who are not able to express or feel shy in public speaking suffer in their career.

  1. Criticism=Learning

EI implies handling criticism positively and without friction. Criticism offers opportunities for growth and decision making. People often react badly to criticism and get upset instead of finding out ways of improving.

  1. Self-Motivation

If you rely on others for motivation you become a burden on others. Thus find and develop your own motivating factors.

  1. Willingness to Change

Be ready to change whether it is your habit, action or opinion. Strong EI helps you to strengthen your internal weaknesses and let you move on and embrace change.

  1. Collaborate

Office work is collaborative, no one can work aloof. So with EI you will learn to collaborate with others and work in a team.

  1. Learn to Let go

People with a flair for perfectionism create a stressful situation for themselves and others and refuse to let things go smoothly. Emotional Intelligent person understands where to stop and create a friendly and cooperative environment at workplace.

The list may go on as the concept is vast and envelopes within itself all the social aspects of human life. The best thing a person may do to increase EI is maintain a diary of events and mark his and others emotions and reactions to analyze it at the later stage and improve himself.

If everybody starts practicing empathy and improving EI the workplaces would be like a place where employees would work happily with full zeal and commitment and the organizations would flourish with quality products and loyal workforce. There would be no arguments and misunderstandings and people would collaborate to work towards achievement of organizational goals without stressing about their own personal goals.

Ms. Ankita Aren

Assistant Professor (Management & Commerece)

RBMI Group Of Institutions


Mathematical modeling is process that makes use of math to represent, analyze, likelihood or provide into real world occurrence. In some complex relationship cannot represented physically may be difficult and take time to construct. More abstract model is used with assistance of symbols. These can describe varied situation. They can apply easily for purpose of experiment and prediction. The mathematical models represent clear relationship and interrelationships among the variables and other factor considered important in solving problems.

Schematic representation of mathematical modeling

In Electrical engineering, mathematical model simulation is important during the designing stage and operational stage of electrical power systems. These electrical power systems are large, complex and are made of many different electrical devices. Mathematical model are also used when launching the stability of electrical circuit, when investigating the microchips. The circuit differential equations (Kirchhoff ‘law) are usually used in describing electrical circuits.

In mechanical engineering, mathematical model is of prominence in crash simulations. In civil and structural engineering, mathematical model are of significance in designing buildings capable of repelling earth quakes to assure safety and security of building. In the field of agriculture, mathematical model are of importance in the following areas: In modelling of agriculture production systems and formatting the amount of feed and energy supply which will reduces wastage and improve efficiency when it comes to production. In the field of medicine, mathematical model and equations leading mechanics and fluid flow have also been used to explain the flow of synovial fluid during the displacement of bone element. 

Boundary value Problem:

A boundary value problem is a given differential equation comprising of the finding of a solution to the given differential equation satisfies a set of conditions define at the boundary point. Boundary value problem are of great importance as many of the biological, Physical science and Chemical science problems can be converted into a boundary value problem. In practical, MHD fluid flow problems involve boundary layer flow. On that ground, MHD problems can be simulated and modeled as boundary value problems. The behavior of the flow and characteristic of the fluid can be investigated and studied by solving these boundary value problems.

NonLinear Process:

Non linearity is a term used to designate a situation where there is not a straight line or direct relationship between a dependent and an independent variable. In a nonlinear relationship, changes in the output do not change in direct proportion to changes in any of the input.

In a linear relationship generate a straight line when plotted on a graph, whereas nonlinear relation does not generate a straight line but generate a curve. On linear performs a variety of scientific applications such as solid-state physics, optical fiber, fluid dynamics, chemical kinematics.

Magneto Hydro Dynamics (MHD) FLOW:

Hydromagnetic was first found by Hannes Alfven (1908-1995). MHD as a field deal with dynamics of conductive fluids in magnetic fields. These conductive fluids include Liquid metal (gallium, mercury and molten iron), plasmas (such as solar atmosphere) and strong electrolytes. In MHD, when the magnetic field and the conducting fluid come into interaction has a wide-ranging application and they include: MHD pump, MHD propulsion, MHD generators and MHD flow meters.

In MHD pump, the magnetic field, electric field and the axis of the duct carrying the conductive liquid are mutually perpendicular to each other. MHD pump has its prominent application following area: MHD micro pumps are used as micro syringes for diabetics. In fusion research pumps are used to create high impact velocities and in cooling of nuclear reactor by pumping sodium coolant in the reactor core.

 MHD generator has the ability to work under very high temperatures than tetraditional electric generators. The thermal kinetic energy direct is directly converted to into electrical energy.

MHD propulsion is a substitute to mechanical propellors in propelling marine vessels such as military submarines propulsion is attained when the sea water is drawn into MHD pumps within the submarine.

The MHD flow meter‘s is modelled based on faraday’ law of electromagnetic field induction. In MHD flow meter, a magnetic field is generated through conductive fluid. The voltage generated in the fluid is directly proportional to the velocity of the flowing fluid. MHD flow meter can also be used to determine the rate of blood flow through blood vessels blood flow meter are used in surgery to determine the amount of blood flowing through a vessel before, during and after the surgery.

Mr. Vijendra Singh

Asstt. Professor

Department of Engineering

RBMI Group of Institutions

Why to choose Marketing as Specialization in MBA?

An MBA degree breaks a glass ceiling and prepare the student to face challenges of the corporate world. The primary focus of MBA programmes is to offer students with technical and professional skills in business administration.

While pursuing their course number of students gets confused while choosing their core domain. This article focused on why to choose “Marketing “as specialization?

We are all aware that we are living in a time of digital revolution and transformation; in which artificial intelligence (AI) will eventually rule the business world yet marketing will continue to be essential to the operations of companies.

Why MBA in Marketing?

If you are interested in Negotiation, Sales, Customer Management, Relationship Building, Media Management, and General Management, MBA in Marketing is the right career option for you. Here are some reasons:

  • Easy Entry into Business World
  • Great Career Advancement Opportunities
  • Scope of Increased Earnings
  • Better Industry Exposure
  • Improved Communication and Negotiation Skills
  • Experiential Learning
  • Global Exposure
  • Enrich Job Responsibilities
  • Avenues for Skill Development

What will you learn?

During the tenure of your course you will learn:

  • Advertising Management
  • B2B Marketing
  • Brand Management
  • Consumer Behavior and Trend Analysis
  • Content Marketing
  • Digital Marketing
  • Marketing Analytics
  • Marketing Research
  • Product & Services Marketing
  • Public Relations
  • Retail Management
  • Sales Force Management
  • Supply Chain Management……….

An MBA in marketing always places a strong emphasis on practical exposure through field study and in-class discussions of real-life company cases.

Employment Areas and Compensation for MBA Graduates

An MBA in marketing provide you the vast array of career opportunities in multiple industries. Some of them are:

RetailBanking & Finance

The course itself offers a well-paying package in the range of Rs. 5 lac per annum to Rs. 20 lac per annum. The remuneration depends on your skill set and overall learning experience. Multiple job profiles are opened for the students like:

  • Business Development Manager
  • Marketing Executive
  • Media Planner
  • Product Manager
  • Sales Manager
  • Store Manager……..

Starting as Marketing trainee one can rise to the level of VP marketing etc. with experience.

Wrap Up

As Aadrika Sharma puts it in a Quora thread about the advantages of getting an MBA in Marketing: “The scope of marketing includes identifying customer-need gaps, developing the right product to plug the gap and bridge the need, product development to lifecycle, consumer insights, acquisition, retention, experience, creating competitive advantage through operational excellence and overall cost leadership, communicating values and benefits across media platforms… and ensuring the availability of the right product at the right place at the right time.”

We at RBMI group of Institutions are imparting the right and latest marketing skills with modern day technical know-how to all our management students. Our MBA marketing specialization is blended with case studies and field work to provide experiential learning.

Dr. Manish Agarwal

Director(Management & Commerce)

RBMI Group Of Institutions

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