A New Way To Predict The Antibiotic Resistance By Bacteria

In a new study led by UCL and Great Ormond Street Hospital researchers, scientists discovered indicators of ‘pre-resistance’ in bacteria for the first time signs that a particular microbe is likely to develop resistant to antibiotics in the future.

The findings, which were published in Nature Communications, will help clinicians choose the best treatments for bacterial infections in the future.

The team, led by Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) and the UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, sequenced the full genomes of over 3,000 tuberculosis (TB) samples, tracing TB infections back through patients over nearly two decades in collaboration with the Peruvian Tuberculosis programme and funded by Wellcome and the National Institutes of Health (USA).

The bacterial infection Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) mostly affects the lungs. After COVID-19, it was the second greatest infectious cause of mortality in 2020, killing 1.5 million individuals. It can be cured with the correct antibiotics, but treatment is time consuming, and many of those who are most at risk do not have access to adequate healthcare. When people do not complete their full course of therapy, or when medications are unavailable or of low quality, drug-resistant TB can develop.

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is a massive, unsustainable problem, and completely drug-resistant strains have been found in only a few countries. Progress in TB treatment has stagnated globally as health systems struggle to cope with the pandemic.

This new research has identified for the first time how to prevent medication resistance mutations before they emerge in order to create a better knowledge of, and ultimately better therapies for, tuberculosis. This idea is known as ‘pre-resistance,’ which occurs when a disease-causing organism, such as a virus or bacteria, has a higher intrinsic chance of acquiring treatment resistance in the future.

The study, which looked at thousands of bacterial genomes, might be applied to other infectious diseases and pave the way for customised pathogen ‘genomic treatment,’ in which drugs are chosen based on the DNA of the pathogen causing the sickness, preventing drug resistance.

This new research has identified for the first time how to prevent medication resistance mutations before they emerge in order to create a better knowledge of, and ultimately better therapies for, tuberculosis. This idea is known as ‘pre-resistance,’ which occurs when a disease-causing organism, such as a virus or bacteria, has a higher intrinsic chance of acquiring treatment resistance in the future.

The study, which looked at thousands of bacterial genomes, might be applied to other infectious diseases and pave the way for customised pathogen ‘genomic treatment,’ in which drugs are chosen based on the DNA of the pathogen causing the sickness, preventing drug resistance.

The authors described how variations in the TB genome predicted that a particular branch would likely become drug resistant, and then validated their findings in an independent global TB data set.

The researchers showed how changes in the TB genome indicated which branches of the disease would be medication resistant, and then confirmed their findings using a global TB data collection.

“We’re running out of alternatives in antibiotics, and the options we have are often hazardous,” said Dr. Grandjean, senior author of the multinational study. “We have to get wiser about using what we have to prevent drug resistance.”

This is the first demonstration that we can outsmart drug resistance. This will allow us to select the optimal treatments based on the pathogen DNA in the future.”

Over a 17-year period, researchers sequenced entire genomes from 3135 isolates. They devised and utilised a genome-wide survival technique to evaluate the risk of resistance acquisition after rebuilding ancestral genomes on time-calibrated phylogenetic trees. They showed that M. tuberculosis lineage 2 is more likely than lineage 4 to develop resistance, and they estimated a greater chance of rifampicin resistance development following isoniazid mono-resistance. They also identified locations and genetic polymorphisms linked to an increased likelihood of resistance acquisition. Antibiotic resistance in M. tuberculosis and other diseases could be prevented by identifying signs of potential antibiotic resistance.

PhD student Arturo Torres Ortiz (UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health), first author of the paper, said: “We hope this discovery could provide a way of treating difficult conditions in the future by targeting specific pathogen genomes that are most likely to become drug resistant in the future.

Sanjesh kumar, Mansi Singh, Dr. Vikas Saxena

Rakshpal Bahadur College of Pharmacy

RBMI Group Of Institutions

Blockchain Technology in Finance

Blockchain has altered people’s perceptions of the Internet by allowing information to be disseminated
yet not duplicated. Blockchain in banking is not a novel idea. However, the notion of blockchain
became renowned when Satoshi Nakamoto applied it in his invention, which he termed Bitcoin.
Bitcoin is an excellent example of a blockchain in finance. There is no denying that blockchain gained
popularity following Bitcoin. When Bitcoin became well-known, several alternative currencies entered
the market. These currencies are referred to as cryptocurrencies because they employ cryptographic
functions such as hash 256 and others.
How do Blockchain works?
The core technology of blockchain is simple, safe, effective, and robust automated transactions
between any two systems. It can be seen as a transaction involving any two parties. In this case, the
first party, “A,” starts and asks a transaction from the second party, “B.” The creation of a block
follows the initiation of the transaction. This block is broadcast to all computers connected to the
network. The block is confirmed when it has been checked by all of the systems in the network. This
confirmed and validated block is added to a chain, which is then distributed over the network,
resulting in the creation of a new exclusive record with a distinct history. The transactions are verified
and carried out between “A” and “B.” Any situation that wrongly impacts a single record would
erroneously influence the whole chain as well as the blocks in millions of instances.

Fig: How do Blockchain works

How Can Blockchain Change The Finance Sector?

The development of blockchain solutions for financial services has the potential to assist the sector in a number of ways. Blockchain in financial services has also resulted in the emergence of decentralized finance, or DeFi. DeFi is a type of finance enabled by blockchain technology that uses smart contracts to eliminate middlemen from financial transactions. Blockchain has the ability to completely transform the financial services we use today. Some of the most important things that blockchain can impact in finance are:

1. Detection of Fraud

Blockchain is growing in popularity because it can identify fraud in ways that our traditional financial system cannot. Nowadays, the majority of the financial system is centralized. There is a single server that keeps track of all transactions. These systems, however, are vulnerable to hackers. If a hacker accesses the system, he has complete access to commit any fraud. The blockchain is, at its core, a distributed ledger. Each block in the blockchain contains a timestamp and certain batches of individual transactions. These records also include a reference to a previous block. It is considered that this technology has the potential to remove some of the present cyber crimes against our financial institutions.

2. Payments

The blockchain division might have a significant impact on the payment procedure. Blockchain will provide institutions such as banks with more security and reduced costs for processing payments between enterprises and their buyers, as well as between banks themselves. In the existing payment processing system, there are many middlemen, but blockchain would eliminate the need for many of them.

3. Money lending

Smart contracts have also been utilized to facilitate money lending between individuals without the requirement for a bank. Several ways have been offered to spread the risks among the parties lending money.

4. Get to Know Your Customers (KYC)

According to a survey, financial institutions spend between $60 million and $500 million to comply with know your customer (KYC) and consumer due diligence rules. Blockchain would provide autonomous confirmation of one customer by allowing one business to be accessible by other firms, preventing the KYC process from having to be restarted.

5. Market Forecasting

Prediction markets are another application connected to the financial industry. Such marketplaces use the “Wisdom of the Crowd” premise, which argues that forecasts made by groups of individuals are more likely to come true than predictions made by a single person. Users can utilize these platforms to predict the occurrence of a future event (e.g., the result of the elections). If their prediction is accurate, the platform’s smart contracts will instantly transfer them a prize.


Blockchain in financial services has the potential to provide several benefits, perhaps transforming the finance industry. Blockchain can assist many financial organizations and government agencies in improving trust, increasing transparency, and lowering expenses. Blockchain has the potential to minimize mistakes by up to 95%, boost efficiency by 40%, and cut capital consumption by up to 75%. Blockchain in finance is an innovative technology that has the potential to completely change the financial sector. The adventure has only just begun.



RBMI Group Of Institutions


While we recover from COVID we may continue to experience a dry cough for some time. Over time a cough can develop a cycle where excessive coughing causes irritation and inflammation, which worsen the cough .


Cough can persist for weeks or months after SARS-CoV-2 infection, often accompanied by chronic fatigue , impairment, dyspnoea , or pain- a collection of long term effects referred  to as the post COVID syndrome or Long COVID. COVID -19 can affect the upper respiratory tract as sinuses, nose, and throat and the lower respiratory tract – windpipe and lungs.


  • fatigue
  • shortness of breath
  • cough
  • joint pain
  • chest pain


  • Brain fog
  • Depression muscle pain
  • Headache
  • Fever
  • Heart palpitations
  • Mood changes
  • Anxiety
  • Problems with smell and taste
  • Sleep issues


  1. Drink plenty of water, especially lukewarm water throughout the day as staying hydrated is absolutely essential.
  2. Swallowing may be difficult when you have a dry cough and inflammation, so take small sips of fluid instead of gulping them down.
  3. In case you don’t have any warm fluids nearby and your throat feels dry, swallow your saliva repeatedly to soothe your throat.
  4. Steam inhalation and gargling with saline water is a must if you want the dry cough to disappear quickly.


  1. Don’t lie on your back while sleeping or resting. Lie on either side with your head elevated on two-three pillows.
  2. It is important that you walk a bit around your room to clear out your chest.
  3. Drink plenty of warm and lukewarm fluids to loosen the mucus in your lungs and release the cough faster.
  4. Steam inhalation, when taken thrice or more during the day, also helps loosen the phlegm in the lungs and clear it out. 

Meetu Bhatnagar 

Nursing Faculty RBCN Bareilly

RBMI Group Of Institutions


Diabetes is the most widely diagnosed disease worldwide. A survey conducted by the International Diabetes Federation depicted that there are around 200 million patients till date diagnosed and this value to hike more in near future. The patient monitoring requires high HbA1c level that can be monitored through various invasive monitors. Self monitoring of the blood glucose level has become a trend of the era due to advancement in the biosensor based technologies. These methods are quick and time saving. These are not compatible for the patients which demand multiple monitoring in a day as its painful interventions.

Saliva tests have proven to be most convenient method for the glucose estimation non-invasively over the traditional methods as it demands painful blood samples drawn from fingertips and veins. As a matter of fact high levels of glucose are monitored in saliva in the patients with diabetes. The reason is that the salivary glands of mammals are very resistant to the passage of glucose from the blood to its secretion.

Therefore, such a simple approach of using the RGB profile of the paper strip for blood glucose monitoring is not only new, but it will also be cost effective and convenient for patients who want to monitor their body glucose levels in a non-standard way invasive but can also be used with any smartphone which would eliminate the need for a dedicated instrument for blood sugar testing. Additionally, this approach may be useful in the rapid detection of large populations of diabetes. A study conducted by Anuradha Soni, Sandeep Kumar Jha (IIT) is being brought into vision by the content.


On synthetic glucose samples for biosensor measurements glucose oxidase (GOD) immobilized filter paper strips are used. For the estimation of glucose in saliva, the paper strip with immobilized glucose oxidase was used and 50 μl of saliva samples extracted from healthy people and diabetic patients (type I or II) were applied before scanning it with the benchtop scanner as before. The blank for the synthetic sample was buffer only and the blank for the test samples (saliva) was the basic answer in the sample. This was followed for the reason that the baseline changed when we do not immobilize GOD in the membrane.

To validate the biosensor in real samples, thirty-six volunteers in the age group 20 to 45 were enrolled in the outpatient department of the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, New Delhi, following the ethical measures of the institute, in which people have signed the consent form and not they were paid money, nor were their identities revealed. Simultaneous blood glucose analysis was performed for the volunteers using an Accuchek Active glucometer (Roche Inc. India) and the data was compared to the corresponding saliva glucose value obtained using our biosensor.  The method was also validated with the DNS reagent method.


First of all the enzyme was immobilized on the filter paper strip and was preserved at 4oC. The specific enzyme activity of immobilized enzyme on paper strips was obtained with the help of protein estimation and enzyme assay. The protein content per strip was found to be 540 μg, while 7.7 U of enzyme activity was estimated per strip. This translated a specific activity of immobilized glucose oxidase as 1.4 U/strip.

This value remained nearly constant for up to 60 days when the strip was kept desiccated at 40C, suggesting that the enzyme was stable under refrigerated condition, especially when protein stabilizer DTT was used during immobilization and preservation stages. Also, a coating of PVA over the strip helped in increasing adsorption stability, as this extra hydrophilic coating prevented desorption of co-immobilized GOD-pH dye.


For the estimation of glucose in saliva, 50 μl of saliva samples collected from healthy as well as type-I/II diabetes patients (36 volunteers) were applied onto the filter paper strip and the

Color change was observed after 45 sec using scanner.

The results were compared with commercial Accuchek blood glucose analyzer.


The present study depicted the results of the paper strip based biosensor for salivary glucose.

Talking about its analytical prospects the immobilized paper strip were scanned with glucose oxidase pH indicators for the profiling and comparing it with the glucose concentrations initially recorded. The biosensor is proven to be highly efficient with efficiency of 45seconds. The method can prove to be a milestone in the diagnosis filed as provides an easy and painless way for the people with or without the diabetes to monitor their blood glucose levels.

Further more studies over the mass and improvements in the biosensor technology we can add some more parameters so that it can reach mass at very minimal cost. The aim to establish a painless method for the diagnosis of the condition is achieved with more research to be initiated on the same.

Are we ready for the painless paradigms?

 Dr. Vikas Saxena, Mansi Singh, Sanjesh Kumar

Rakshpal Bahadur College of Pharmacy

RBMI Group Of Institutions

Unlock Your Happiness(Specially for Students)

Unlock Your Happiness (Specially for Students)

The Key to Happiness is to Focus on the Present | Ascent Publication

Come let’s begin with a smile and with few words of mine-

“Hit me and I will stand up, hate me and I will stand up, discourage me and Iwill stand up, bully me and I will stand up, hold me and I will stand up

All my friends, it’s time to hold me and cheer me up -take me up.”

STRESS- It has become our closest friend

Causes of Stress, Life, Work, Relationships, Money

Every morning we have a plan but do we really wake up?

Stress has become our closest friend holding our hands day and night. It is rather not wrong to say stress is a part of life now.

One cannot define it. Everyone has his/her own perspectives but no one wants to kill it rather than we prefer to nourish it every day.

In medical terms, stress is a physical, mental or emotional factor that causes physical or mental tension. Stress can be external (from the environment, psychological or social situations) or internal (illness or medical intervention).

A form of stress that occurs due to the perception of events in the external or internal environment and leads to a psychological experience of stress and anxiety .Mental stress comes along with physiological responses.

Stress can cause physical, emotional and behavioral disorders that can affect your health, vitality,peace of mind and your personal and professional relationships. Stress is an invitation to various health problems like insomnia, back pain or headaches and contributes to life-threatening illnesses like high blood pressure and heart disease. In the present scenario, what we have, we never value that. We are always up for the things which worth just a moment of joy not inner value. Mental Health is a priceless embellishment one should always seek for.

Mental health refers to cognitive, behavioral and emotional well-being. It is all about how people reflect, sense, and deport themselves.

4,026 Social Anxiety Disorder Stock Photos and Images - 123RF

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), mental health is “a state of comfort in which the person realizes his/her own abilities, can deal with with the normal stresses of life, can work efficiently and successfully, and is able to make a contribution to his/her community”.

Drain the pain- Social anxiety disorder (SAD)

Tips to help a person with social anxiety disorder (and what not to say to  them) | Lifestyle News,The Indian Express

College comes with the amalgam of sweet bitter expectations of students. It is the first road for the journey of future, adulthood, freedom and personal development. College life is full of responsibility, education, fun it’s like a fuel that drives students to their future. Academics are the first priority of the students besides the others and it demands lot of interaction at every stage of the curriculum.

Anxiety is always being a part of student’s life and will always be also. But the difference lies when this condition becomes biggest hurdle for the success to be achieved, leaves students in vain and no option other than quitting is left with them. They are moving away from the comfort of family and friends to a place of uncertainty, where interacting with strangers is inevitable. The college environment places heavy demands on social performance. Making new friends, group projects, class presentations and everyday interactions with people can be challenge.

Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a continual fear of situations in whicha person is exposed to the possibility of being analyzed. This can lead to decreased academic performance, which in turn can lead to depression and suicidal tendencies. As a result, students are more at riskas they are exposed to academic stress and pressure.

Academically student is unwilling to participate in classroom activities, ask queries, homework, group discussions, and classroom presentations and even to approach their professors.

Socially student is unwilling to be part of a group, sports, and clubs friendships and even to stand up for their own problems.

Student with such conditions are more prone to get obsessed for drugs and alcohol. According to a country wide survey, greater than sixty two percentage of college students with intellectual fitness issues who dropped out of university did so due to the ones issues.

Unlock the happiness –

Azure Event Hubs "Role Based Access Control" in action - DEV Community
  1. Shake Hands with a Smile- Building Friendships, Smile, and bob or say hi to classmates. Ask them about classroom activities, indulge in the interaction with your ideas, be comfortable, and recreate yourself.
  2. Action Speaks louder than words- Preserve repeated eye contact with others. Be in a comfortable posture and be polite with your voice.
  3. Be a listener and Curious One- Listen to the matter delivered, compliment your classmates for their efforts.
  4. Open up with asking questions, increasing your cognition with reading and update yourself.
  5. Present yourself- Began it with your family, present them your ideas, than with your friends and close ones and finally to the audience.
  6. Compliment Yourself with Lifestyle Alterations– Exercise, Good Food Healthy sleep and proper Concentration.

Remedy lies in us

Choose Happiness sticker — Harken Press

Mental health is a dynamic state of internal balance that allows people to use their abilities in harmony with the universal values of society. Elementarycognitive and social skills; Capability to distinguish, prompt and modulate one’sown emotions and sympathize with others; Flexibility and capacity to deal with adverse life events and function in social roles; and the pleasant relationship between body and mind are important components of mental health that contribute in different degrees to the state of internal balance.

Let me reveal the secret of living life to its fullest –

  1. Reconstruct your Soul- one can always cherish himself with the blessings inhis life, count them and thank almighty for that. This will give a new boost and your soul will start healing with the pain and sufferings of life.
  2. Brain loves Balance– A healthy mind rests in healthy body and healthy body lies in balance of life. Balance your life with a step to change your perception towards life. Replenish your brain with good thoughts, feelings of care, devotion to work and enjoy every moment of life.
  3. Address of Happiness- One should never look for happiness outside, it’s beneath your soul. Find it through meditation, yoga, spending time with loved ones and eating good food.
  4. What goes along comes along- Behavior is a tool to unlock the secret tojoy. Ones behavior always determines the inner peace and harmony, so working on your behavior will take you to a life you always admired.
  5. Life is yours, hold it- Emotions, behavior, thoughts are ingredients of your recipe of cheerful life. Add them wisely and enjoy the journey of life.

Stress can leave us in vain until and unless we start giving an effort to throw it away. Practice the suggestions and you surely will make your way to a balancedstate of mind. A balance is what we always want and we are every time in search of.

A small effort can build you up mentally and give you all what we always want. Choice is yours what we perceive, a new morning with a smile or burden of life?

Send Good Morning Messages | Adobe Spark

Sanjesh kumar, Mansi Singh and Dr.Vikas Saxena

Rakshpal Bahadur College of Pharmacy

Microcontroller 8051

Microcontroller 8051

Microcontroller is a compact integrated circuit designed to govern a specific operation. It is also referred as embedded controller or microcontroller unit (MCU), microcontrollers are found in vehicles, robots, office machines, medical devices, mobile radio transceivers, vending machines and home appliances, among other device8051 microcontroller is designed by Intel in 1981. It is an 8-bit microcontroller, built with 40 pins DIP (dual inline package), 4kb of ROM storage and 128 bytes of RAM storage. It consists of four parallel 8-bit ports, which are programmable as well as addressable as per the requirement. 

The foundation of 8051 Microcontroller was on Harvard Architecture and was developed principally for Embedded Systems. At first, it was created using NMOS technology but as NMOS technology needs more power to function therefore, Intel re-invented Microcontroller 8051 employing CMOS technology and a new edition came into existence with a letter ‘C’ in the title name, for illustration: 80C51. These most modern Microcontrollers which need fewer amount of power to function in comparison to their forerunners. 

Features of 8051 Microcontroller

The main features of the 8051 microcontroller architecture include the following:

  1. 8-bit CPU through two Registers A & B.
  2. 8K Bytes – Internal ROM and it is a flash memory that supports while programming the system.
  3. 256 Bytes – Internal RAM where the first RAM with 128 Bytes from 00H to 7FH is once more separated into four banks through 8 registers in every bank, addressable registers -16 bit & general-purpose registers – 80.
  4. The remaining 128 bytes of the RAM from 80H to FFH include Special Function Registers (SFRs). These registers control various peripherals such as Serial Port, Timers, all I/O Ports, etc.
  5. Interrupts like External-2 & Internal-3
  6. Oscillator & CLK Circuit.
  7. Control Registers like PCON, SCON, TMOD, TCON, IE, and IP.
  8. 16-bit Timers or Counters -2 like T0 & T1.
  9. Program Counter – 16 bit & DPRT (Data Pointer).
  10. I/O Pins – 32 which are arranged like four ports such as P0, P1, P2 & P3.
  11. Stack Pointer (SP) – 8bit & PSW (Processor Status Word).
  12. Serial Data Tx & Rx for Full-Duplex Operation.

8051 Microcontroller Architecture

CPU (Central Processor Unit):

Central Processor Unit or CPU is the mind of any processing machine. It scrutinizes and manages all processes that are carried out in the Microcontroller. The user has no power over the functioning of the CPU. It interprets the program printed in storage space (ROM) and carries out all of them and does the projected duty. CPU manages different types of registers in the 8051 microcontrollers.


Interrupt is a subroutine call that reads the Microcontroller’s key function or job and helps it to perform some other program which is extra important then.


The micro-controller needs a program that is a set of commands. These programs need a storage space on which they can be accumulated and interpret by the Microcontroller to act upon any specific process. The memory which is brought into play to accumulate the program of the Microcontroller is recognized as Program memory or code memory. In common language, it’s also known as Read-Only Memory or ROM. Microcontroller 8051 contains code memory or program memory 4K so which has 4KB Rom and it also comprises data memory (RAM) of 128 bytes.


Bus is a group of wires which function as a communication canal or means for the transfer of Data. These buses comprise 8, 16, or more cables. As a result, a bus can bear 8 bits, 16 bits altogether. There are two types of buses:

Address Bus: Microcontroller 8051 consists of a 16-bit address bus. It is brought into play to address memory positions. It is also utilized to transmit the address from the Central Processing Unit to Memory.

Data Bus: Microcontroller 8051 comprise of 8 bits data bus. It is employed to cart data.


Registers in microcontrollers are mainly used to store data and short-term instructions which are mainly used to process addresses to fetch data. This microcontroller includes 8-bit registers which have 8-bit start from D0 to D7. Here, D0 to D7 is LSB (least significant bit) and D7 is the most significant bit (MSB).

There are classified into two types like General purpose & Special purpose. So, most of the general-purpose registers are listed below:

  • An accumulator is mainly used to execute arithmetic & logic instructions.
  • Registers like B, R0 toR7 are used for storing instruction addresses & data.
  • Data Pointers or DPTR is used to allow & process data in dissimilar addressing modes. This register includes DPH (high byte) & a DPL (low byte) which is mainly used to hold a 16-bit address. So, it can be used as a base register within not direct jumps, lookup table instructions & external data transfer.
  • Program counter or PC is a 16-bit register used to store the next instruction’s address to be performed
  • These registers are 8-bits other than program counter & data pointer registers.

8051 Microcontroller PIN diagram

Function of Each Pin

  • Pins 1 to 8 − These pins are known as Port 1. This port doesn’t serve any other functions. It is internally pulled up, bi-directional I/O port.
  • Pin 9 − It is a RESET pin, which is used to reset the microcontroller to its initial values.
  • Pins 10 to 17 − These pins are known as Port 3. This port serves some functions like interrupts, timer input, control signals, serial communication signals RxD and TxD, etc.
  • Pins 18 & 19 − These pins are used for interfacing an external crystal to get the system clock.
  • Pin 20 − This pin provides the power supply to the circuit.
  • Pins 21 to 28 − These pins are known as Port 2. It serves as I/O port. Higher order address bus signals are also multiplexed using this port.
  • Pin 29 − This is PSEN pin which stands for Program Store Enable. It is used to read a signal from the external program memory.
  • Pin 30 − This is EA pin which stands for External Access input. It is used to enable/disable the external memory interfacing.
  • Pin 31 − This is ALE pin which stands for Address Latch Enable. It is used to demultiplex the address-data signal of port.
  • Pins 32 to 39 − These pins are known as Port 0. It serves as I/O port. Lower order address and data bus signals are multiplexed using this port.
  • Pin 40 − This pin is used to provide power supply to the circuit.

Applications of 8051 Microcontroller

8051 Microcontroller is used in various applications such as:

  • Light sensing and controlling devices
  • Temperature sensing and controlling  devices
  • Fire detections and safety devices
  • Automobile applications
  • Defense applications etc.

AprajitaStudent B.Tech. (EN) , IV year

Rakshpal Bahadur College of Engineering & Technology

Exploring MBA course

Exploring MBA course

What is MBA

MBA (Master of Business Administration) is an internationally recognized and geographically portable post-graduate, academic course in a number of subjects that together can be said to constitute the science of management. It is two years course approved by AICTE and affiliated with University.


 An MBA will offer you a wealth of advantages, including high salary , landing a management position, developing a strong professional network, or even becoming your own boss are just a few of the advantages of studying an MBA degree .

The main purpose of an MBA degree is to teach students how to manage a company in every way, or in other words, to train a person who have a interest in business administration.

Is MBA very difficult?

MBAs are challenging but not difficult to pursue. Many students ask if an MBA is too difficult for an average student. My answer is- MBA is as difficult as you make it, and is as rewarding as you invest in it. An MBA can enhance your marketability as a professional and increase the quality and quantity of job opportunities.

Advantages of doing MBA –

  • Great employment opportunities- MBA gives a good career start and leads to a wide scope for career development. MBAs are omnipresent, I mean from Production to Services and to NGOs everywhere MBAs are required. One of the biggest reasons people choose to pursue an MBA is the boost it gives to their career. The all-round development that MBA students undergo during their time in a business school makes them highly demanding for employers, who are seeking talent that possesses sharp business acumen and leadership skills to drive growth.
  • Open for All- Even if you have graduation in Engineering, Pharmacy, Medical, Science, Arts, Commerce, Management, Nursing or any other, you still can pursue an MBA post graduate degree. The basic eligibility criteria for MBA is Graduation in any discipline or equivalent from a recognized university. Most of the institutes follow the minimum score criteria in Graduation which is 50 per cent in average or equivalent.
  • Scope for entrepreneurship / Star-ups – MBAs acquire the skills necessary to start a business/ start-up/ turn into an entrepreneur. It is easy to get Loans and Govt support if you have MBA Degree.
  • Variety of Career options- Probably the only course where you have an opportunity to choose among various specializations, including Dual Specialization in areas like Marketing, HR, Finance, Operation, IB & IT. It gives job-market versatility. In an MBA degree, students are taught all about business administration. They are also taught about all the many different things and departments involved in the building of a business. Therefore, if you are thinking of variety of career options ,you should definitely consider MBA.
  • Go for Shift / Advancement in Career- You may be in any area of expertise, but an MBA degree certainly helps you for career Advancement or Shift. So, it is always a right decision to go for MBA.
  • Status value- MBA degree offers a Great status and brand value to your personality. It not only enhances professional growth but also personal growth. MBA symbolized status and money.
  • Opportunity to Learn & Show your skills – An MBA teaches you to think critically, to express your ideas coherently, to be a better team-player, deal with high-stress situations, predict oncoming challenges, and of course, teach you to delegate right. It sounds overwhelming because on many levels it changes who you are as a person, and helps you master valuable skills you need to succeed in career. As MBAs works at Decision making level, so they have good opportunity to show their skills and have satisfaction of contribution in the Nations growth.
  • Worldwide recognition- MBA degree has worldwide acceptability.

 An MBA is a great option for thriving business and career opportunities and a sustainable future. Unlike other courses, a career in MBA is not at all restrictive and opens up a plethora of options to choose from.

Dr.Neeraj saxena

Director – Rakshpal Bahadur Management Institute, Bareilly




Globally, diarrhea is the major problem of developing countries. Diarrhea remains the second leading cause of childhood mortality and morbidity.  


Diarrhea may be defined as the frequent passage of loose stool, watery stool and unformed stool which may also contain blood or mucus. When there is presence of mucus or blood then the condition is known as dysentery.

During infancy and childhood diarrhea is the major cause of death.

Diarrhea is not a disease but it is a symptom of an infection or disease.


ORT combines three ingredients—salts, sugars and water to quickly act on the symptoms of dehydration. This is done through the process of osmosis; the salts and sugars pull water into your bloodstream and speed up rehydration.

ORT helps to replace lost salt content and improve absorption of water by the body. At the first signs of dehydration, you should take ORS (ORAL REHYDRATION SOLUTION). This mainly helps by re-hydrating the body. It is easier to prevent dehydration early on by drinking ORS than to cure it.

Oral rehydration solution contains:

Sodium chloride            3.5g

Sodium bicarbonate     2.5g

Potassium chloride       1.5g

Glucose                         20.0g

Following steps should be taken to prepare Oral Rehydration Salt solution at home:

  • It can be made using 6 level teaspoons (25g) of sugar and 0.5 teaspoons (2.9g) of salt in 1L of water.
  • The home-made solution is adequate in most cases and is very effective for rehydration. Be very careful to mix the correct amounts. Too much sugar can make the Diarrhea worse and too much salt can be extremely harmful to the child.
  • The home-made solution is adequate in most cases and is very effective for rehydration. Be very careful to mix the correct amounts. Too much sugar can make the Diarrhea worse and too much salt can be extremely harmful to the child.


 Diarrheal disease is the second leading cause of death in children under five years old.

Diarrhea, which is frequent caused by poor sanitation and hygiene, can have serious, even deadly results, typically as a result of Diarrhea-related dehydration. It particularly affects infants, children and old people.

Diarrhea generally lasts for several days, and leaves the body without water and salts that are necessary for survival. Most people who die from Diarrhea actually die from severe dehydration and fluid loss from the body.

How to make the ORS drink which is available in powder form?

  • Put the contents of the ORS packet in a clean container.
  • Check the packet for directions and add clean water as indicated. Too little water could      make the Diarrhea worse.
  • Add water only. Do not add ORS to milk, soup, fruit juice or any soft drinks. Do not add sugar.
  • Stir well


The ORS solution should be covered and not kept for more than 24 hours, due to the risk of bacterial contamination.


 ORS is safe and can be used to treat anyone suffering from Diarrhea, before a detailed diagnosis is done by the doctor. Adults need rehydration treatment as much as children, although children must always be treated immediately because they become dehydrated more quickly.


WHO and UNICEF recommend the use of ORS and zinc for the treatment of acute Diarrhea.

 Diarrhea causes dehydration and a loss of nutrients, so it’s important to address both. Oral rehydration Solutions (ORS) replenish fluids and electrolytes, and zinc supplements help to restore levels of the micronutrient (and subsequently limit the severity of Diarrheal episodes and prevent future ones). Together, they address the immediate dangers posed by Diarrheal episodes and help to restore good health.


The Stop Diarrhea Initiative (SDI), a project by Save the Children, India, aimed to showcase the WHO/UNICEF Seven-Point Plan as the most effective strategy to comprehensively prevent and treat childhood Diarrhea. The project contributes to Save the Children’s global ambition to remove Diarrhea as a leading cause of death amongst children.

  • Be very careful to mix the correct amounts, as too much sugar can make the Diarrhea worse, and too much salt can be extremely harmful to the child. If the mixture is made a little too diluted no harm can be done and there is very little loss of effectiveness.
  •  Encourage the child to drink as much as possible.
  • A child under the age of two needs at least a quarter to a half of a large cup of the ORS drink after each watery stool.
  • A child aged two or older needs at least a half to a whole large cup of the ORS drink after each watery stool.
  • Diarrhea usually stops in three or four days. The real danger is the loss of liquid and nutrients, which can cause dehydration and malnutrition.

Akhil Rodgers-Faculty
Rakshpal Bahadur college of Nursing, Bareilly

Ozone Layer in Simple Terms

Ozone Layer in Simple Terms


Ozone or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula O3. It is a pale blue gas with a distinctively pungent smell. It is an allotrope of oxygen that is much less stable than the diatomic allotrope O2, breaking down in the lower atmosphere to O2 (dioxygen). Ozone is formed from dioxygen by the action of ultraviolet (UV) light and electrical discharges within the Earth’s atmosphere.

Ozone Layer-

The ozone layer is the common term for the high concentration of ozone that is found in the stratosphere around 15–30km above the earth’s surface. It covers the entire planet and protects life on earth by absorbing harmful ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation from the sun. The sun emits three different types of UV radiation: UVA, UVB, and UVC. … UVA rays, which account for 95 percent of radiation that reaches the earth’s surface, cause wrinkles, “sun spots,” and other types of premature aging. The stratospheric ozone layer is Earth’s “sunscreen” – protecting living things from too much ultraviolet radiation from the sun. The emission of ozone depleting substances has been damaging the ozone layer.

Ozone Layer Depletion –

Ozone layer depletion is the thinning of the ozone layer present in the upper atmosphere. This happens when the chlorine and bromine atoms in the atmosphere come in contact with ozone and destroy the ozone molecules. One chlorine can destroy 100,000 molecules of ozone. It is destroyed more quickly than it is created. Ozone depletion consists of two related events observed since the late 1970s: a steady lowering of about four percent in the total amount of ozone in Earth’s atmosphere, and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone around Earth’s polar regions. The latter phenomenon is referred to as the ozone hole.

International Ozone Day –

In 1994, the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed 16 September the International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer, commemorating the date of the signing, in 1987, of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.

The theme for the celebration of 2020 World Ozone Day to be marked on 16th September is “Montreal Protocol – Keeping us, our food and vaccines cool“. This year’s World Ozone Day seeks to highlight, the Montreal Protocol does so much – such as slowing climate change and helping to boost energy efficiency in the cooling sector, which contributes to food security. The Protocol has been universally ratified by all 197 member countries of United Nations.

The Dobson Unit

The Dobson Unit (DU) is the unit of measure for total ozone. If you were to take all the ozone in a column of air stretching from the surface of the earth to space, and bring all that ozone to standard temperature (0 °Celsius) and pressure (1013.25 millibars, or one atmosphere, or “atm”), the column would be about 0.3 centimeters thick. Thus, the total ozone would be 0.3 atm-cm. To make the units easier to work with, the “Dobson Unit” is defined to be 0.001 atm-cm. Our 0.3 atm-cm would be 300 DU.

Effects Of Ozone Layer Depletion-

View of planet earth burning in space

The depletion of the ozone layer has harmful effects on the environment. Let us see the major effects of ozone layer depletion on man and environment.

On Human Health-The humans will be directly exposed to the harmful ultraviolet radiations of the sun due to the depletion of the ozone layer. This might result in serious health issues among humans, such as skin diseases, cancer, sunburns, cataract, quick ageing and weak immune system.

On Animals-Direct exposure to ultraviolet radiations leads to skin and eye cancer in animals.

On Environment-Strong ultraviolet rays may lead to minimal growth, flowering and photosynthesis in plants. The forests also have to bear the harmful effects of the ultraviolet rays.

On Marine Life-Planktons are greatly affected by the exposure to harmful ultraviolet rays. These are higher in the aquatic food chain. If the planktons are destroyed, the organisms present in the food chain are also affected.

Good News-

The Antarctic ozone hole — one of the deepest, largest gap in the ozone layer in the last 40 years — has closed, according to World Meteorological Organization (WMO) January 6, 2021.

Still we have to work for Ozone Layer –

The depletion of the ozone layer is a serious issue and various programmes have been launched by the government of various countries to prevent it. However, steps should be taken at the individual level as well to prevent the depletion of the ozone layer.

Following are some points that would help in preventing this problem at a global level:

Avoid the consumption of gases dangerous to the ozone layer-Due to their content or manufacturing process. Some of the most dangerous gases are CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons), halogenated hydrocarbon, methyl bromide and nitrous oxide.

Minimize the use of cars- The best transport option is urban, bicycle, or walking. If you use a car to a destination, try to carpool with others to decrease the use of cars in order to pollute less and save.

Do not use cleaning products that are harmful to the environment and to us-Many cleaning products contain solvents and substances corrosive, but you can replace these dangerous substances with non-toxic products such as vinegar or bicarbonate.

Buy local products- In this way, you not only get fresh products but you avoid consuming food that has travelled long distances. As the more distance travelled, the more nitrous oxide is produced due to the medium used to transport that product.

Maintain air conditioners- As their malfunctions cause CFC to escape into the atmosphere.

We have only One Home : The earth- SAVE IT

Dr. Neeraj SaxenaDirector

Rakshpal Bahadur Management Institute, Bareilly

Handling the Challenges of Organizational Development

Handling the Challenges of Organizational Development

“With Organizational Development comes Challenges” or it will not be wrong to say “With changes comes Challenges.” Organizational Development is something that is essential to ensure the effective growth and longevity of the company. Organizational Development in some cases becomes essential for the organization to  stay in the competition.

The crucial role in Organizational Development activities are played by the management and the employees of the organisation.   There must be a good understanding and coordination between the management and the employees for the success of any OD process. The various stages of OD process and its accomplishment must be transparent in the mindset of both.

Employees are the assets for their organization. Employees who stayed in the organization for longer duration often –

  • Become more confident and less stressed.
  • Helps in developing healthy working environment.
  • Works as a dedicated company experts.
  • Contribute more to the company business and culture.

Challenge # 1 – Employee Retention

In order to achieve gain from above benefits, a company needs to retain these employees in a satisfying manner. As an HR Manager, one should focus on retaining these valuable resources. Employee retention is one of the major functions of HR

Graph says, while hiring, the organization is in “Investment Zone”, which means that when a fresh talent enters the organization, the organization needs to first invest in him from hiring to on boarding to training and development.

Challenge # 2 Employee Resistances

It has been observed that employees generally oppose any Organizational Development activity with a view to avoid any change in the existing practices. It is a natural human tendency to resist change.

Other Challenges

Besides this, there are several other challenges faced by the organization; some of    which are –

  • Equipping with the modern technology.
  • Conflicts between management and employees.
  • Strategically communicating organizational priorities.
  • Meeting the level and standards of productivity.
  • Financial Management.

Now the Biggest Question here arises

How to overcome these OD challenges?

Here are some Tips to overcome OD Challenges-

  • Counseling: Counseling sessions can be conducted for employees for briefing up of needs of OD, which can make them realize the realistic situation of the organization in the present environment.
  • Role Change: We can consider some of them for role change as supervisors or other. Up to 20% of the employees can be considered as supervisors (Example- Quality checks etc.) as per the concept defined in Scientific Management by F W Taylor. Since they are the traditional winners of the organization, they best know about the quality of the product they are  producing.
  • Monetary Benefits : We can introduce bonus or incentives scheme for them which will motivate to work dedicatedly and stay longer with the business.

      Some more Behavioural aspects to consider

  • Leadership – Changes in the Leadership styles in order to bring more autonomy.
  • Communication – Maintain a good and healthy level of communication with the employees. Discuss the problems and solution with the employees. Know their perspective to the situation.
  • Focus – It is important to identify the problem, create a plan to accomplish it , implement the plan, and remain focused.
  • Participative Management – Be open to the solutions, different approaches and the new perspective, which the employees may have. Listen to them carefully and take a sensitive look over them.

Conceptual Framework for Handling OD Challenges

The image above shows the steps to lead to handle Organizational Development challenge. It starts with Problem Identification to Situational assessment, Planning, Implementation to get Feedback, if the results do  not meet the set standards or expected performance only then the process  need to be repeated.

Riya Tomar-Alumnus MBA 2019-21

RBMI, Bareilly

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